This article is a longer version of the introductory address opening the exhibition of anatomical illustration in the Academic Club of First Medical Faculty of Charles University in May 1999. The history of anatomical illustration, its significance and its two main forms, scientific drawing and didactical illustration, are shortly introduced. The development of this form of art at the Medical Faculty in Prague is shown and is demonstrated by examples of illustrations. Two old authors of illustrations are mentioned: an unknown author of illustrations of the first illustrated textbook of anatomy in Prague that was written by Ch. S. a Zeidlern, and F. Bĕlopotocký who illustrated the Atlas of Anatomy by W. Stanĕk written in Czech in 1840. In more detail are discussed the following artists and anatomical illustrators of 20th century connected with the Institute of Anatomy of Charles University: J. Rejsek, E. Illing, S. Machácek, M. Med, V. Seichert, I. Helekal a J. Kacvinský.
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